Fourth Exam Essay Questions
What are the causes of
obesity in children? What solutions would you recommend for an obese
Describe 4 areas of cognitive
growth during the concrete operations stage.
What is horizontal decalage?
Give an example.
How does attention improve in
middle childhood? Use your textbook.
What are the symptoms of ADD
and ADHD? What are the causes? Discuss effective treatment.
Discuss the improvements in
storage and retrieval strategies that occur in middle childhood.
What is IQ? What
factors contribute to it?
Describe Sternberg's Theory
of intelligence. How does it compare to what IQ tests measure?
Why do Asian students
outscore Americans on tests of math and science?
How does children's
self-esteem change in middle childhood? What things influence our
What are 3 strategies for
self-regulation used in middle childhood? How can we help them improve
How are fathers important for
the well-being of their children?
Why are siblings different
from each other given that they share 50% of their genes and the same
What are the effects of
divorce on school age children? What recommendations would you make to
change existing divorce laws to better protect children?
Third Exam Essay Questions
Describe the major brain changes during the preschool
years and how each is manifested in children's behavior.
How do immunization rates for U.S. children compare
with children in other countries? What causes this discrepancy?
How does drawing change during the preschool
years? How can "art therapy" be used with preschoolers?
How does make believe play change during the preschool
years? Why is it important to children's development?
What are egocentrism, conservation, transductive
reasoning, and class inclusion? Give an example of each.
What changes occur in preschooler's capacity for
attention and long term memory?
What is Theory of Mind? How does it develop?
Using the Interactionist Perspective, describe the
changes in language in the preschool years.
What is self-esteem? How should adults help
children build self-esteem?
What are some strategies preschooler acquire for
self-regulation? How can adults help them develop these skills?
Use nature and nurture to explain the development of
What are the most effective strategies for building
morality in children? What is the role of punishment?
What are the factors that create child maltreatment,
using an Ecological Systems model?
Second Exam Essay Questions
Infant brains grow from 30%-70% of their adult size
before age 2. What accounts for this growth? What behavioral
changes are possible as a result of this growth?
What is the best food for babies and why? (There are at
least 6 reasons)
Describe the cephalocaudal/proximodistal nature of
motor skills development.
Describe classical conditioning and give an example
relevant to infancy.
How does operant conditioning shape a child's
behavior. Use 2 examples to illustrate your answer, one using a
negative and one using a positive reinforcer.
Describe and give examples of assimilation and
What is a circular reaction? Give 2 examples of
According to Information Processing, describe the
growth in infant cognition. Be sure to consider attention, storage,
Describe the acquisition of language from the
According to Vygotsky, how do we help children's
cognitive development? Give an example.
Name 7 emotions that are present in the first
year. How do they emerge and change?
How do children acquire the ability to regulate their
What are the 3 types of temperaments? Describe
What are the types of attachment?
What determines the process of attachment?
First Exam Essay Questions
Compare the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky.
Describe your own current micro, meso, exo, macro and
Describe each of the following methods of gathering
data in one or two sentences: naturalistic and laboratory observation;
interviews; psycho-physiological; tests.
Define longitudinal, cross-sectional and
cross-sequential designs. Which one is strongest? Why?
Describe the methods of data gathering and research
design in the article you read in class.
Name 5 patterns of inheritance and describe them.
What are canalization and reaction range? How are
they related to each other? Give an example of a trait that is highly
canalized and one that has a wide reaction range.
Describe passive, evocative and active gene-environment
correlation. Give an example of each.
Describe brain development (in broad terms) in the
germinal, embryonic and fetal periods. Be sure to include the terms
proliferation, migration and differentiation.
Why do teratogens often have inconsistent effects on
Describe the 3 stages of labor.
What can neonates taste? smell? hear?
Besides hormones, what may explain post-partum
Final Exam Questions (not the final list of questions,
check again after 12/2)
Describe how the brain develops from conception through
age 12. Pay attention to each of theses processes: proliferation,
migration, differentiation, sculpting, synaptic exuberance, synaptic
pruning. Illustrate the importance of each change with an example of a
Describe cognitive development from a Piagetian point
of view. Include the major achievements of each stage.
Describe cognitive development from an Information
Processing point of view. Include changes in attention, storage
strategies, retrieval strategies, working memory and long-term memory in
infancy, early childhood and middle childhood.
"How much of a cake is the recipe and how much is
the ingredients?" Discuss the meaning of this quote. Use
examples of heritability, bi-directional influence, and parental
(environmental) influence from throughout the book to make your
Ecological Systems Theory helps us to remember that
most issues of child development have complex origins. Find an example
of an issue that is better understood by applying the Ecological Systems
model from each of the age ranges we studied. Describe each
issue using the model.
From infancy to age 12 children's emotions, and their
ability to manage them change. Describe the pattern of the emergence
emotions. Describe the process of acquiring self-regulation of
How does the view of the self emerge and change?
How can adults help children build self esteem?
Psychology is different from other ways of
understanding human behavior because it relies on empirical evidence.
Summarize in one sentence each of the methods for gathering data and each of
the research designs described in chapter one. Find an example of each
in the textbook from chapters 6-13.